Coconut Shell Carbon Hardness Number and Iodine Number

Coconut shell based activated carbons has Lower Ash Content, Higher Amount of Micropores, Higher Iodine Number, Excellent Hardness and it is very efficient in the removal of small size organic impurities.

Activated carbon from coconut shell has predominantly pores in micro pore range. Almost 85-90% surface area of coconut shell activated carbon exists as micro-pores. These small pores match the size of contaminant molecules in drinking water and therefore are very effective in trapping them.

Macro-pores are considered as an access point to micro-pores. Meso-pores do not usually play an important role in the adsorption unless the surface area of these pores is large, 400 m2/g or more. The predominance of micro-pores in coconut shell carbon gives it tight structure and provides good mechanical strength and hardness and also high resistance to resist attrition or wearing away by friction.

Coconut shell-based AC has the most micropores. Micropores are defined as pores less than 20-angstrom units (two nm) in diameter.  Coconut shell based carbons are excellent for Point of Use (POU) and Point of Entry (POE) applications because of lower ash content and excellent microporus structure.

The very large internal surface areas characterized by microporosity along with high hardness and low dust make these coconut shell carbons particularly attractive for water and critical air applications as well as point-of-use water filters and respirators.

Coconut Activated Carbon Hardness Number is around 98 but Bituminous Coal Activated carbons hardness number is only 85 – 90.

Some of other features which carbon industries, see as a great advantage in favour of coconut carbon are as follows:

  • Coconut is a renewable source of carbon
  • Coconuts grow throughout the year, with harvesting generally occurring 3-4 times in a year
  • Coconut tree can be preserved for many years






Pelletized Activated Carbon and Its Usages

Pellet activated carbon produced from coal, wood and coconut shell, either by high temperature steam activation or chemical activation under stringent quality control. With low ash content, large surface area, high mechanical hardness, high pore volume and chemical stability.

By varying manufacturing conditions, internal pore structures are created that impart unique adsorption properties specific to each product type. The choice of product for a specific application will vary due to differing impurities and process conditions.

Pelletized activated carbon is created by extruding activated carbon into cylindrical shaped pellets with diameters ranging from 0.8 to 5 mm. Their high activity and surface area make it ideal for many vapor phase applications. The uniformity of its shape makes it particularly useful in applications where low-pressure drop is a consideration.

Pelletized activated carbon provides lower pressure drop than granular activated carbon in fixed-bed purification of gases and vapors. The adsorptive capacity of pelletized carbon makes it ideal for removing a variety of contaminants from air and gas streams. Pellets are also an environmentally responsible product that can be reactivated through thermal oxidation and used multiple times for the same application.

Applications include gasoline vapor recovery for automotive applications, solvent recovery, air purification, odor control, catalysis and removal of corrosive gases.  Pelletized activated carbons are extremely hard, durable and low in dust content. They are particularly well suited for recovery of solvents and for evaporative emissions controls.

The pellets are available in different diameters and chemistry to meet a variety of application requirements.  Pelletized activated carbons specifically designed for gasoline vapor recovery. Customers can select activated carbon products with the proven physical properties and design flexibility needed to achieve optimum performance in their own canister systems.

The features and benefits of pelletized automotive carbons include the highest working capacity, low density, low flow restriction, low diurnal emissions, and superior durability.

Solvent Recovery, Air Purification, Acid Gas-Odor Control – Pelletized carbons are used for the control of organic pollutants in a variety of off-gas applications for environmental purposes. They are particularly well suited for use in solvent recovery systems where cyclohexanone is the solvent, and in systems with other solvents that see traces of heavy components that shorten the bed life of other types of carbons. They are also
used to purify many types of industrial and hydrocarbon gases in fixed beds or pressure swing adsorption applications such as natural gas purification and helium recovery.

Other Uses – Catalysis/Catalyst support

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Honeycomb Activated Carbon

Honeycomb-like activated carbon is a new type of absorption material made by high quality powder activated carbon and binder. Honeycomb carbon block has a large amount of through holes from one end to another end in a cubic or cylindrical shaped block.  Honeycomb carbon filter is a type of high effective carbon filter to remove unpleasant odors,  particulates and other pollutants.

This kind of structure gives low pressure drop, high mechanical strength and more contact surface with gas. Honeycomb carbon block is mainly used for vapor phase pollutants removal.  Now it is widely use for air purification system which is high flow rate, low-concentration VOC pollutant air streams

Consider the following features and advantages of using Honeycomb carbon block over traditional pellet and granular activated carbons:
1. The honeycomb structure has a pore size range of 10-2,000 Angstroms and a BET surface area range of ~200-3,000 sq.m/gm!
2. The honeycomb carbon block is desorbed with liquid ring vacuum pumps and a small quantity of heated condensation compound free air – the adsorbed compounds are stripped!
3. The pressure drop at a given linear gas velocity for Honeycomb carbon block containing 200 cpsi (cells per square inch) is 11 times lower than densely packed 4mm pellet extruded activated carbon!
4. Honeycomb structures may be pressed into cubes, round cylinders, oval, square and rectangular cylinders!
5. The shorter distances for internal diffusion mass transfer for honeycomb carbon leads to faster saturation and desorption rates and thus shorter cycle times!
6. Honeycomb adsorbent can be purged of fuel compounds and solvents using a vacuum above 100 mbar!
7. Honeycomb carbon has a much higher specific surface area compared to other carbon structures!
8. Honeycomb carbon block has a lower level of carbon attrition and dust-related problems due to carbon attrition are minimized!
9. Honeycomb carbon block is available in 100, 200, 300 or 400 cpsi!
10. Honeycomb block carbon is only 15% more expensive than 4mm pellets and has 3 times the surface area for adsorption!!
11. The honeycomb shape core mesh can be paperboard, plastic and aluminum material. The paperboard core mesh is the most economical products, but it is not reusable. The plastic and aluminum honeycomb core meshes are reusable and durable.
12. Honeycomb shape could be cubes, round cylinders, oval, square and rectangular cylinders.
13. Honeycomb carbon has a higher external surface area of adsorbent compare to granular carbonit has 2X bigger contact areas for adsorption if using 100 CPSI, 4X if using 300 CPSI honeycomb.

The Applications Of Honeycomb Activated Carbon

 Activated carbon is able to remove undesirable or harmful gaseous components from air streams. The molecules collect on the relatively large internal surfaces of the honeycomb. These honeycombs are also used for absorbing odour molecules. Put granular activate carbon into the honeycomb shape core mesh, and then cover the polypropylene grid mesh on it. Surrounded by the paperboard, plastic, aluminum or galvanized frames, the honeycomb carbon filter has a rigid and firm structure. The granular activated carbon can be coconut shell activated carbon, wood activated carbon and coal activated carbons. The shapes of activated carbon is commonly irregular and column shapes.
The pollutants can be removed by honeycomb activated carbon: benzene, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, ethanol, aether, carbinol, acetic acid, ethyl ester, cinnamene, chlorine, phosgene, foul gas, butane, methanol,  styrene, malodorous gases and other acids can be used to remove carbon monoxide, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, formaldehyde, Alkaline gas.
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Typical Properties of Granular Activated Carbon

Typical Properties of Granular Activated Carbon

Bituminous Sub-bituminous Lignite Nut Shell
Iodine Number 1,000-1,100 800-900 600 1,000
Molasses Number 235 230 300 0
Abrasion Number 80-90 75 60 97
Bulk Density as packed LB/CF 26-28 25-26 23 29-30
Volume Activity 26,000 25,000 13,800 0

Activated Carbon Iodine and molasses numbers measure pore size distribution.  Iodine number is a relative measure of pores at sizes of 10 to 2 Angstroms. It is reported in milligrams of elemental iodine adsorbed per gram of GAC and determines the area available on the GAC to adsorb low molecular weight organics.

Molasses number measures the degree a GAC removes color from a stock solution. It measures pores greater than 28 Angstroms. These are the pores responsible for removing larger molecular weight organics such as tannins.

Abrasion numbers represent the relative degree of particle size reduction after tumbling with a harder material. No reduction is rated 100, complete pulverization is zero.

Activated Carbon

Get Benefit from Coal activated carbon

As the name indicates, coal activated carbon is derived from carbonaceous raw materials like coal, and the end product has micro-porous, non-graphite carbon form. Activated carbon can be manufactured from coconut shell, which seems to be high in quality when compared to other resources. Regular home filters contain materials that use active carbon for filtering and removing impurities in an effective manner.

Activated carbon features great adsorptive ability and reflects a wide array of dissolved chlorine and organics. You can custom-make activated carbon to fit your particular requirements.

Activated carbon

activated carbonsAny organic material with high contents of coal, peat and coconut shells can be used to make this type of carbon. This kind of carbon is also called activated charcoal, a content that makes the end product highly porous. It features big surface area exposed for adsorption and chemical reactions. With high level micro-porosity, one gram of active carbon has a surface area of around 2.17 tennis courts. The surface area is determined by nitrogen gas adsorption.

Advanced chemical treatments can increase the adsorbing elements of the material, however proper activation of relevant applications is accessible from high surface areas only. Thermal decomposition done in a heat furnace can transform the carbon based material into activated carbon. Controlled heat and environment is employed to operate the heat furnace.

The end point residue generally has a big surface area per unit volume to facilitate adsorption as it has large network of submicroscopic pores. The walls of the pores offer needed adsorption to the surface molecules.

Uses of activated carbon 

  • It is mainly used to remove odors and chemicals that color the water.
  • It can remove strong smelling natural gases like hydrogen sulphide from water contents.
  • It is capable to remove little volumes of iron, mercury and chelated copper.
  • Chlorine from water is absorbed and removed while leaving an aspect called ammonia.
  • It can decrease or remove volatile organic chemicals, pesticides, radon, herbicides, benzene and many other compounds and solvents.

During the activation process, a lot of pores, made of molecular dimensions are developed within the structure. The structure can contain a large internal surface that enormously attracts molecules of its surrounding gases and liquids. The whole power of this force is equal to the molecular system of the atmospheric medium. Moreover, this content is a technique that can remove various factors from a given mixture.

These are employed as de-coloring and cleansing agents in a lot of processes because they are capable to absorb 10% to 90% impurities from different Aquarius solutions. Activated carbon works in purification process that involves getting the organic compounds attracted to the activated carbon as the water pass through the filter, and two contents get reaction in form of being chemically bounded to each other.

Pollutants don’t get into the sink or glass as the pores of the filter does not allow big molecules to pass through. Get more information about the forms, process and reason behind activated carbon and its ideas.

Activated Carbon For Filters and Water Treatment

Because of activated charcoal’s incredible adsorption ability, it is an ideal choice for air and water filters. When used appropriately, charcoal filters will effectively clean the air and water by electrostatically binding pollutants to its vast surface area.

Many people use activated charcoal filters in outdoor ponds and aquariums to keep the water clean and the marine life healthy.

Carbon filtering is a method of filtering that uses a bed of activated carbon to remove contaminants and impurities, using chemical absorption.

Each particle/granule of carbon provides a large surface area/pore structure, allowing contaminants the maximum possible exposure to the active sites within the filter media. One pound (450 g) of activated carbon contains a surface area of approximately 100 acres (40 Hectares).

Activated carbon works via a process called adsorption, whereby pollutant molecules in the fluid to be treated are trapped inside the pore structure of the carbon substrate. Carbon filtering is commonly used forwater purification, in air purifiers and industrial gas processing, for example the removal of siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide from biogas. It is also used in a number of other applications, including respirator masks, the purification of sugarcane and in the recovery of precious metals, especially gold. It is also used in cigarette filters.

Active charcoal carbon filters are most effective at removing chlorine, sediment, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), taste and odor from water. They are not effective at removing minerals, salts, and dissolved inorganic compounds.

What carbon filtration doesn’t do can be seen in the remaining three categories of the EPA contaminant list. Carbon is mentioned as a treatment for only one of the four Microbiological contaminants listed: turbidity.

It is not recommended for coliform removal or for cysts, though ironically, some of the very tight solid carbon block filters now on the market remove bacteria (though manufacturers seldom make this claim) and cysts like giardia and cryptosporidium quite handily. Multipure solid carbon blocks, in fact, were the first filtration device certified by NSF (the most prestigious independent agency that tests and certifies product performance) for removal of cryptosporidium.

Multipure and some other very tight carbon block filters remove cysts simply because of their restricted pore size. Multipure blocks are absolute 1/2 micron filters, making cryptosporidium organisms about ten times too fat to go through the holes. Thus, although other types of very tight filtration might work as well, the very dense carbon block filters now on the market are very effective against certain forms of microbiological contaminants.

 Activated Carbon for drinking water Treatment

Potable or drinking water is a commodity with stringent requirements of being safe and pure. Granular Activated Carbons (GACs) and Powder Activated Carbons (PACs) is your ideal solution in making drinking water free from taste and odor forming compounds such as MIB and geosmin, undesired colors, endocrine disrupting compounds and other micropollutants, chlorinated hydrocarbons, Trihalomethanes and other disinfection byproducts, VOCs, pesticides and their byproducts.

You can treat drinking water with the high quality, standard, and specially processed products complying with NSF 61, NSF 42, PROP 65 certifications with low dechlorination half values, superior flow characteristics, consistent particle size distributions to facilitate pressure drop and adsorption kinetics requirements, extensive pore structures with an ideal balance of both adsorption and transport pores, and high mechanical strength resulting in minimal operational and pressure drop issues. These superior features have made  granular carbon products the industry choice for Point of Use (POU) and Point of Entry (POE) water filters.

Activated Carbon for Municipality water treatment

In the treatment of municipal water, removal of organics including VOCs, inorganics and toxins inherent in the rivers, lakes, reservoirs and other surface water sources and ground water systems is essential. You can find a tailor made series of products for surface and ground water treatment in municipality water treatment systems to deliver consistent performance in removing these contaminants.

These products are also geared to adsorb hazardous pesticide and herbicide residues, chlorinated hydrocarbons, disinfectant byproducts, inhibitory compounds for biological treatment systems, non-biodegradable organic compounds, and undesired colored and smell compounds. Our carbons are effective in lowering of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Organic Content (TOC) and toxicity. In addition, the high purity of the carbon products prevents the release of contaminants that may damage sensitive membrane systems used in other in-process filtration systems. We also offer custom designed products and total purification solutions to best suit your requirement.

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